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The carbon-14 method was developed by the American physicist Willard F. It has proved to be a versatile technique of dating fossils and archaeological specimens from 500 to 50,000 years old.
The method is widely used by Pleistocene geologists, anthropologists, archaeologists, and investigators in related fields.
Beta particles are a bit lighter than alpha particles, so they can go farther and penetrate materials deeper. In gamma decay no particles are released, but the isotopes formed by alpha and beta decay still have too much energy. These rays penetrate the farthest and can even go through a foot of concrete. Uranium (U)-235 is the main element used in nuclear power.
These are radioactive elements, meaning that they break down over time by releasing energy and turning into different elements. All atoms consist of subatomic particles, like neutrons, protons, and electrons.
Neutrons and protons make up the nucleus, or core, of an atom.