Relative dating lab answers
When you go to Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona and hike down the Kaibab Trail, from the South Rim to the Colorado River, a mile below, you will pass through these formations of rock.
Consistent with the principle of superposition, the deeper in the Canyon you go, the older the rocks are.
The mathematical formula can be used to determine exactly how much time has elapsed, for any fraction of parent/daughter isotope, without having to make a visual estimate from a graph.
The mathematical formula is expressed as follows: where age is the absolute age (typically using years as the time unit), ln is the natural logarithm, D is the amount of daughter isotope, and P is the amount of parent isotope.
Note that unconformities, which on the diagram above are symbolized by the irregular lines, are indicated by dashed lines in the column below.
Also, the formations that appear on the simplified stratrigraphy diagram above are marked in the table with the number that corresponds to the diagram.
By the definition of a half-life, the amount of parent isotope at each half-life is half of what it was before the half-life elapsed.
The diagram below is a simplified representation of the stratigraphy of the Grand Canyon.You can use principles of relative geologic age to determine sequences of geologic events, including rock formations, intervals of erosion, tilting, folding, and faulting like those represented in the block diagrams and cross-sections below.Be sure to review the principles of relative geologic age on the Geologic Time Basics page .There is a definite mathematical relationship between the ratio of the amount of daughter product isotope to the amount of radioactive parent isotope, and the number of half-lives that have elapsed.
The relationship is non-linear, involving a logarithmic function.
An isotope system is assumed to be a closed system with regard to the parent and daughter - they remain within the system and do not leave it, and at the same time no isotopes of the parent or daughter type enter the system from outside.