Sphinx carbon dating
In the early photo, the deterioration is clearly visible.
The recent photo shows the extensive restorations done around the neck and edges of the headress.
Ancient and historical records indicate that its body has been totally covered for long periods of time.
Old Kingdom (approximately 4500 - 5000 years ago) - extensive restoration work was done on the Sphinx with large limestone blocks and plaster and some portions were recarved - the toes and possibly the head.
For those dynasties which left us almost nothing, like VII-X and XIV, Manetho is considered the most reliable authority, even though the lack of evidence has caused some to ask if those dynasties really existed.
This may be why Sir Alan Gardiner wrote that 'what is proudly advertised as Egyptian history is merely a collection of rags and tatters'.
Because of the poor condition, piecing the fragments together has proven to be difficult.
These lists have been used to create a comparative dating system for many sites and artefacts by comparing them with the cartouches found on objects uncovered.
Unacceptable predecessors such as Hatshwpsut and Akhenaten and the Pharaohs from the Amarna period are omitted from the list.
Originally it had 58 cartouches, but now only 47 remain, running from Anedjib of the 1st dynasty up to Rameses II, again omitting the names of the second intermediate period.
Royal Canon of Turin - This papyrus is the best known surviving chronology of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs, but is also the most damaged.
While most sites are adorned with inundations of praise to the builder of the structures, unfortunately, the Giza complex is devoid of such engravings or inscriptions (exceptions discussed earlier).
In itself, the absence of information is significant.
The two versions do not agree on names, or on the counting of years.